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Thursday, June 17, 2010

World of electronics components..

Electronics....... Have you can specifies its components in a books...! I can understand your talk. " Who is a donkey, Please look this blogger name. Cute.... He is a good example". But i like to show some simple ways to choose your components for electronics. Are you ready with me?... Just for a fun with me...Yaa.... It is always fun..
Now we can list out some components that is commonly used for all circuits.

Cute words. Only 4 letter. Really slim beauty. But it has a big role in electronics. First we need some theory about wires.
What is a wire?
A wire is conducting material with a cylindrical shape that is used to interconnect various components. Now wires has a variety of shapes and type. According to our use, we can select the correct one. First you just see some important types of wires.

Now you can get some basics about it. Yaa boss, very simple. To flow water, we use pipes. Also to flow current, we use wires in electronics.

Commonly for electronics circuits, we use single stand wires and multi stand wires. Now just try it...

Single stand wires
 What is a single?... That is a one... Nice answer. We like simple answer and simple looks. So just believe it. Single stand wire is a single conducting material with a cylindrical shape. Also it has a nice plastic coting with a attractive colour. I have a hobby to collect various colour wires due to its attraction.
Single stand wires are mostly used for connecting components in breadboard. I believe that single stand wires are not suitable for soldering. Now just test it. Use a  single stand wire and multi stand wire for soldering. Then say what you feel?....
Which is more flexible and durable?...
That is your decision.... So i leave it.

Multi stand wires
Now multi stand wires.... Multi stand wires is a collection of single stand wires in a plastic coting. 
There is no any complex theory. If you have any problem? Just go to a electronics shop and request for single stand and multi stand wires... Then return to home.... Now you can understand difference between them. Try to solder them, connect in breadboard..... Wish a nice experiments with wires.....
So last, wires are only connecting material...Forget it for future....

In almost electronics circuits, you can find resistors. So it is an important as you. 
Resistor have some basic functions. Resistor is a current limiter or voltage divider. Just leave it. We have some rules and theory's to find its value in circuit. 
All resistors have a particular colour code. Colour code is used to find out its value in ohms. We have a particular name or number to identify us.Same to that, in resistors we can find some marking in with various colours. It is known as colour code. For more reference, look the below figure. 
  Now you can identify some resistors in electronics circuits. Here is a variety of resistors are available now. So first try to understand the major types.
Now just look the below fig. 

 (a)   ¼ watt resistors, 5% precision: These resistors are available in many different resistances in the student electronics lab.  They are the most common type of resistor that you will encounter and work well for many applications.
(b)   1% precision resistors: These resistors are available in the ME Department electronics shop in W298 (ask one of the staff). 
(c)    Resistors for higher-wattage applications: Particularly in higher-current applications, you may encounter situations where a resistor will be required to dissipate more than ¼ watt.  If one of your ¼ watt resistors starts smoking, this is certainly true.
(d)   Potentiometers: These devices allow you to adjust resistances during operation of your circuit. 
Friend.....  If you feel any  problems with my stuppid theory,  just close this blog and try to enjoy a song. After a hot coffee, we can meet.

 After this small break, we want to use some resistors in various electronics circuits. So first we need some network theory in resistors. 
Now i am in my last year of engineering degree. But till, i can't clear my ideas about resistor networks. So friend, i just show some important resistor networks and evaluate it. If you have much intrested on this topic, please say to google or our wikipedia. It is always better than me.

Resistor in parellel and serial
In the above figure , we can find some simple resistor networks.
Fig a shows 3 resistor are connected in serial.  In serial connection, the tottal resistnce between node a & node b is r1+r2+r3.
Also in fig b, three resistance is connected in parellel. Here the reciprocity of tottal resistance between node a& node b is (1/r1)+(1/r2)+(1/r3).
The fig c and fig d are combinations of the series and parellel networks.
So friend, just i stop this stuppid resistance theory at here. Just go to any other good website for better information, because now i am empty.


Sunday, May 9, 2010

How breadboard can connect electronics components?

A breadboard is a construction base for a electronics circuit or a prototype design.Now bread board is commonly used to refer solder less breadboard and plug board.It does not require soldering, so it is reusable for a long period. Due to this specification, now a days a variety of electronics systems may be prototyped by using breadboards, from small hobby circuits to complete central processing units. So familiarize with breadboard is important for all electronics hobbyist.
we consider the father of modern breadboard as Ronald J Portugal of EI instruments who design the now common, classic, usually white, plastic solder less breadboard in 1971.

A modern solder less breadboard consist of a perforated block of plastic with numerous tin plated phosphor bronze or nickel silver alloy spring clips under the perforations. The spacing between the lead pitch is typically
2.54mm. ICs in DIP package can be inserted to the adjacent holes in center line of block. Connecting wires and other components leads can be inserted in to the free remaining holes to complete the circuit. Typically power ratings of spring clips are 1 ampere at 5 volts and 0.333 at 15 volts.

Inside the breadboard
Now solder less breadboard is manufactured by various electronics tool makers. But normally all of them follow the same method and same specification. In the breadboard, we can see two type of areas, called strips. The strips consist of  interconnected electrical terminals. The two type strips in the solder less breadboard are
  • Bus strips
  • Terminal strips

Bus strip
They are used to connect supply voltage for the circuit in the bread board. A bus strip in a breadboard usually contain two columns, one for supply voltage and one for ground connection. Typically the column intended for
supply voltage is colored with red and column for ground is colored as green,blue or black. In some bread board all terminals in a column are electrically connected. Otherwise One column is divided in two groups.
The consecutive terminals in a group is connected electrically and the next group is electrically disconnected with the first group. This design decrease the crosstalk effect on power supply bus.

Some breadboard contain separate bus and terminal strips. Others just provide block which contain both bus and terminal strips. The first is more useful one. In this type of breadboard, we can extend the size by clipping more strips together.

Terminal strips
        The terminal strip is the main area used to hold all electronics components in a breadboard. In the middle of terminal strip of a breadboard, one typically see a notch running in parallel to the long side. The notch in the terminal strips perform some functions in a breadboard. The notch is mainly used to indicate the center of terminal strips and it provide some cooling in to the DIP package ICs .
  DIP ic in a bread board
Typically we can find five holes in a row at left and right side of notch. The two sides are electrically disconnected and five holes in a row in each side are electrically connected to others. Also the rows in each side are not connected. The five columns on the left of notch are commonly marked as A, B, C, D and E and five columns in right of notch is marked as F, G, H, I and J.

Connecting wires
One of the most important component in a electronic circuit connected in a breadboard is  connecting wires. We cant imagine a breadboard without some connecting wires.Connecting wires for breadboard can be obtained in the form of ready to use jump wires and manually manufactured connecting wires. Ready to use jump wires can be get in various quality. But it coast is an important for a hobbyist. So try to use single strip connecting wires as jump wires.

 Inside the Bus strip
What you can feel about the above figure? It is the inner view of a bus strip in a solder less breadboard.

Last view about solder less breadboard
Now i upload a figure to end all doubts about breadboard. After the last view you are ready to connect a circuit in a breadboard. So we can end this theory.
Now what is your concept about solder less breadboard. Just look the below  one and stop it.
From this drawing, you can finish this searching...
How we can connect circuits in  Breadboard
 Now you have much knowledge about solder less breadboard. Try to read the above details with keep your breadboard in your hand. Now you can see Bus strip and Terminal strip in your breadboard.

How i split a VCC from a solder less breadboard?.
It is interesting, just connect your supply in to two holes of different column of bus strip area. Then take power from holes in the same column. Now you split power from bus strip area. Also splitting of signal is possible in terminal strip area. For this purpose, you must connect supply line or signal line in any two different rows of terminal strip area. Then take output from the same rows. It is simple...

Now i shows  some good quality circuits that is powered using solder less breadboard. Just keep in mind that your circuits output is always depend with its assembling. So to get output in minimum time, improve your breadboard practice..

 Problems associated with solder less breadboard
Due to stray capacitance, high inductance of some connections and relatively high resistance, solder less breadboard is limited to operate at low frequencies, usually less than 10 MHz.
Also solder less breadboard have some voltage and current limitation. It has a certain power ratings.
Also breadboard is not a way to connect surface mount technology devices.
Complex circuits can become unmanageable in solder less breadboard due to large amount of wiring.